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Socrethics – Introduction


First version 2008   Last version 2018






Table of Contents


1.  Practical Philosophy

2.  Biological and Cultural Evolution

3.  Contemporary Buddhism 

4.  Negative Utilitarianism 

5.  Philosophy as Therapy






1.   Practical Philosophy



The turning point from sage advice to critical investigation came with Socrates and his method of elenchus or dialectical enquiry (…). Socrates marks the beginning of practical philosophy [Haldane].

The Socratic way of thinking originated in a social environment that was in analogy to today’s situation – exposed to major political and religious upheavals and where the old conventions lost their liability [Hampe, 438]. Socrates was looking for a new and reliable orientation, a new conception of the good life.

He was driven by the personal question of how he himself should live and the more general question of how one should live [Sellars, 35].




         The Eightfold Path (Fourth Noble Truth) is a possible answer to the question “how one should live”, the question which – according to Kant – is at the core of practical philosophy.

         The Four Noble Truths are also a form of philosophical therapy with a strong normative claim. They can be interpreted as diagnosis, etiology, prognosis and prescription [Gethin, 63-64] and represent a detailed ethics for the cure of suffering. The Buddhist denial of the world and the corresponding retreat-oriented way of living, however, are in conflict with the Western understanding of therapy.



Guiding principle

Socrates’ approach to practical philosophy is a way of thinking, Buddha’s approach is a doctrine (the Four Noble Truths).

The guiding principle of the Socrethics website is

         an examination of Buddhist ethics

         using the Socratic way of thinking.


In the tradition of Socrates the Buddhist truths are considered as theses, which are open to falsification [Koller]. There are two strategies for a hypothetical falsification:

1.      Use empirical data to test the Buddhist predictions (chapter 2).

Buddha suggested that an expansion of desires leads to an expansion of suffering, a thesis that can be examined on the basis of the evolution of suffering.


2.      Map Buddhist ethics to established contemporary ethics (chapter 3). The criticism of the latter then also applies to the former.

There are two major contemporary interpretations of Buddhist ethics [Verhaeghen]:

a.      Consequentialism of compassion, respectively negative utilitarianism [Keown, 176].

The major criticism stems from social contract theory (chapter 4).

b.      Virtue ethics.

The major criticism stems from philosophy as therapy (chapter 5)




2.   Biological and Cultural Evolution


         The Biological Evolution of Pain and The Cultural Evolution of Suffering.

The basis of every therapy is the understanding of suffering. The prime goal is therefore a theory of the origination and dispersion of suffering. An analytical approach is confronted with unpleasant theses. One of them is that the degree of suffering increases in the course of evolution and seems not to be limited. Does the cultural evolution with its increasing complexity and its prolongation of lifetime lead to higher degrees of suffering (in analogy to the biological level)? Or will the problem of suffering be solved by a technological breakthrough? In the latter case the Buddhist doctrine is refuted.


         An Interdisciplinary View on the Freedom of Will

A possible steering of cultural evolution presupposes the existence of a free will. This paper investigates the evolution of free will and reasons for skepticism. To what extent are human values and decisions controlled by the unconscious? Without some control on cultural evolution it is hard to refute the Buddhist doctrine.


         Short History of Welfare Economics

Classical utilitarianism assumed that happiness correlates with the consumption of goods and services. Buddha in contrast, suggested that – once basic needs are met – it doesn’t make sense to expand material desires. This paper investigates how welfare economics evolved from the 18th century until today.




3.   Contemporary Buddhism


The papers listed in this section were published in the journal Contemporary Buddhism.


         On the Buddhist Truths and the Paradoxes in Population Ethics

This paper illustrates how axiologies are shaped by intuitions, and how intuitions are driven by interests. The biological intuition about non-existence is driven by the interest to survive; the Buddhist intuition about non-existence is driven by the interest to avoid suffering. The acceptance or denial of the Buddhist world view depends on the weight given to these interests.


         The Denial of the World from an Impartial View

A negative valuation of the world is hard to defend, if it is confronted with empirical data. Surveys on subjective life satisfaction consistently report that the majority is satisfied with their lives [World Happiness Report]. This paper suggests that the majorities’ perception of suffering and risk may be distorted by the interest to survive. The Buddhist denial of the world cannot easily be dismissed as being irrational.


         Negative Utilitarianism and Buddhist Intuition

Negative utilitarianism is an umbrella term for versions of utilitarianism which model the asymmetry between suffering and happiness [Fricke, 14].

Major Buddhist intuitions can be mapped to major versions (axiologies) within negative utilitarianism. The latter is criticized in chapter 4.


         Secular Buddhism and Justice

Secularization means, amongst others, that the belief in cosmic justice transforms into a quest for mundane justice. There are resources in Buddhism which allow relating Buddhist ethics to Rawls’ theory of justice. But whereas Rawls’ concept cannot be implemented without force, Buddha teaches the principle of non-violence (at least for the members of the sangha). Early Buddhism was a retreat-oriented, escapist philosophy. The more secular Buddhism engages for mundane justice, the more it is in conflict with the principle of non-violence.




4.   Negative Utilitarianism


In contemporary ethics negative utilitarianism is the consequentialist ethics that comes closest to Buddhism [Keown, 176]. Consequently the arguments for and against negative utilitarianism can also be applied to (secular) Buddhism.


         Hostility to Live and the Minimization of Suffering

Is negative utilitarianism necessarily a life-hostile philosophy?


         Negative Utilitarianism and Justice

Rawls’ theory of justice – in particular the engagement for human rights and the difference principle – aims at the reduction of suffering as well as negative utilitarianism, but avoids the totalitarian potential of the latter.


         Why I’m (Not) a Negative Utilitarian.

Negative utilitarianism is discarded in mainstream philosophical circles. Is it an implausible theory?




5.   Philosophy as Therapy


         Philosophy as Therapy – Introduction and Philosophy as Therapy – A Review

Does the Buddhist virtue ethic lead to neurotic disorders? Does it merely transform suffering it into new forms? The radical ethical priority of the avoidance of suffering – as suggested by Buddhism – is a controversial matter [Nagel, 173, 217] because it conflicts with the biological meaning of life. The sublimation of passionate happiness into com-passion and meditative happiness is hard work, and not achievable for everybody. High ethical standards are often the wrong medicine for people who are vulnerable to depression. Furthermore some of Buddha’s rigorous ethical guidelines were influenced by a controversial theory of karma and rebirth and require validation.


         Moral Perfectionism and Justice and The Good Life in Philosophical Films

Stanley Cavell suggests abandoning all predefined virtues in favor of authenticity. For some people a moral norm is easy to comply, for others extremely difficult, depending on their constitution, environment and biography. Furthermore, in a complex cultural environment, it is often difficult to translate virtues into concrete arguments for decision-making. In accordance with Socrates, Cavell recommends a certain way of thinking, rather than a given path leading to a known destination.






1.      Fricke Fabian (2002), Verschiedene Versionen des negativen Utilitarismus, Kriterion Nr.15, pp.13-27

2.      Gethin, Rupert (1998), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press

3.      Haldane John (2009), Practical Philosophy: Ethics, Culture and Society, Introduction

4.      Hampe Michael (2014), The Teachings of Philosophy, Suhrkamp Verlag, Berlin

5.      Keown, Damien (1992), The Nature of Buddhist Ethics, New York, Palgrave.

6.      Koller Erwin (1994), Sternstunde Philosophie

7.      Nagel Thomas (1986), The View from Nowhere, Oxford University Press

8.      Van Hooft Stan, Philosophy as Therapy, Deakin University, Melbourne

9.      Verhaeghen Paul (2015) Good and Well: The Case for Secular Buddhist Ethics, Contemporary Buddhism, 16:1, 43-54

10.  World Happiness Report (2013), Edited by John Helliwell, Richard Layard and Jeffrey Sachs, The Earth Institute, Columbia University Press, New York